Measuring the effectiveness of community radio

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Andrew Wood

Final Essay, MA Radio

September 2002

 

 

 

 

 

Abstract

 

 

 

 

This essay seeks to define community radio, its aims and effectiveness. It surveys the licensing of community radio. The pilot access radio projects, community radio projects by another name, and their evaluation are introduced and reviewed. Community, its definition and measurement are explored. The importance of communication in community is reviewed. A study of local media and community involvement is examined. The essay concludes that the evaluation of the pilot access radio projects is inadequate. The essay recommends studying if community radio increases community involvement as a measure of effectiveness.

 

 

 

Measuring the effectiveness of community radio

 

Introduction

In 2002 the Radio Authority, which licenses and regulates all independent radio services in the United Kingdom started a pilot scheme for community radio, or 'access radio' as it's also known by the Radio Authority. Proponents of community radio hope that the experiment will lead to a 'third tier' of radio in addition to the existing public-service radio ('the BBC') and commercial radio services.

The current two tiers of radio undertake listener surveys as a measure of their success; for the commercial broadcaster this translates to an audience to sell to advertisers and hence income; for public-service broadcasting it means continuing support from the Government for subscription by the licence fee. But how would we measure the success of community radio? Are there other criteria by which we should measure its effectiveness than audience size, or 'reach'?

Community radio in Britain today

Presently community radio broadcasts over cable, induction loops, low power AM/FM radio transmitters, closed-loop systems or the internet. There is currently no specific community radio licence. The pilot access radio projects, fifteen of them, are solely to allow for its evaluation. They will operate for up to a year. The experience gained in the pilots will allow the radio regulator, which is expected to be OFCOM, to make recommendations to the Government about future licensing of access radio. The first pilot access radio station on-air was Cross Rhythms City Radio on 28 February 2002 [1].

Restricted Service Licences (RSLs) - either short term or long term are issued by the Radio Authority to community radio stations. They are also granted for a wide range of other purposes [2]. Typically long term RSLs are granted to student, hospital and armed forces radio stations. At the end of 2001 there were 85 long term RSLs in the UK [3]. It should be noted that of the 800 hospital radio stations [4], few require a licence from the Radio Authority. There are also a number of cable based community radio stations licensed by the Radio Authority, for example BCB 'community radio for the Bradford District' and Cable Radio Milton Keynes (CRMK) [5]. Formerly Birmingham's BHBN hospital radio was available on cable [6].

Short term RSLs are granted to special events that may include festivals, religious or educational events, drive-in movies, sporting fixtures, community radio, trials of new stations and other purposes.

In 2001 there were 423 short term RSLs issued [7]. Of that figure, 18% (75 licences) were for 'Youth & Community' reasons according to the Radio Authority, the previous year 58 licences were issued for this purpose. The Radio Authority notes that the higher number in 2001 may be due to 'several community groups operating RSLs to demonstrate their suitability in the hope that they might have been selected in the access radio experiment. All of the fifteen access radio groups selected to participate in the pilot experiment in 2002 had conducted an RSL broadcast previously'. It is interesting to note that the Radio Authority categorises student RSLs (9% of short term RSLs) and religious RSLs (18% of short term RSLs) as distinct from 'Youth and Community' short term RSLs.

Community radio is represented by a number of organisations. The Community Media Association or Commedia as it is known, is the UK membership body for community media that includes radio, TV and web based media. It has about 600 members [8]. The Hospital Broadcasting Association is the national representative for hospital broadcasting with 300 member stations [9]. The Student Radio Association is the representative body for student radio in the UK with about eighty member stations [10].

What is community radio?

If we are to evaluate the effectiveness of community radio then we need to understand its aims then we can assess the radio stations against these aims.

David Henry says radio may be categorised according to how it is motivated. He identifies five models: state radio; underground radio; community radio; public-service radio; commercial radio [11].

Henry says community radio is understood to have three characteristics:

It is interesting to note that this definition draws a clear distinction between local radio, whether it is commercial or public-service radio, and community radio. Local radio may be produced for local communities but unlike community radio it is not produced by local communities i.e. community participation is the defining difference.

Simon Patridge describes the how the Community Radio idea developed in 'NOT the BBC/IBA' [12]. He says the earliest use of the term 'community radio' was in 1965 by Rachel Powell in her pamphlet 'Possibilities for Local Radio' published by the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies at Birmingham University. By 1979, the Community Communications Group - COMCOM as it became known [13] - drew up a Community Broadcasting Charter. The charter describes the function, process and structural aims of community radio. The Charter says that Community Broadcasting should:

'1. serve recognisably local communities and/or communities of interest;

2. have a non-profit distributing nature;

3. have its general management and programming policy made by a Governing Board which is democratically representative of the various interests in the community, including the paid and voluntary broadcasting workers;

4. provide with this democratic, non-profit structure, a service of information, education and entertainment, and enable the two-way communication of diverse opinions;

5. be financed from a variety of sources which could include local loan capital, clearly defined spot advertising of limited duration, and central and local public funds;

6. recognise the right of broadcasting workers to join a union and the need for flexible demarcation of job roles, and allow the use of volunteers where suitable;

7. undertake to provide equal employment opportunities for women, and for ethnic and other significant social minorities;

8. be committed to providing local people with access to training, production and transmission facilities;

9 transmit programme material that is predominantly locally originated;

10. have a programming policy which encourages the development of a participatory democracy and which combats racism, sexism and other discriminatory attitudes.'

How does this compare with the Radio Authority, which for the purposes of the pilot access radio projects, set out a definition of access radio in May 2001[14]: 'To be considered for a pilot scheme licence projects must:

[*Sources of non-commercial funding might include public funding [e.g. from a local authority], lottery funding, grants from charities, religious bodies etc, subscription or membership fees, donations, etc.]'

The Radio Authority and COMCOM definitions are very similar; the Authority's definition is almost a subset of the COMCOM charter, despite differing vocabularies and the 22 year age difference. The Radio Authority says 'social gain' is necessary and this would accord with points 7,8 and 10 of the COMCOM charter.

Both definitions identify a community as being one which is either, geographically or spatially associated - a community-of-place as its known, or one which is a community-of-interest. Table 1 and Table 2 provide a possible categorisation of the fifteen access radio projects. The placing of the projects is my own. Given the access radio projects are using radio transmitters for broadcasting then there must be some overlap in the nature of the communities, that is they are, to a greater or lesser degree, both communities-of-place and communities-of interest.

Table 1. Community-of-place pilot access radio projects. Source [15]

Project name

Place

Bradford Community Broadcasting

Bradford inner-city

Radio Regen:

 

All FM

 

 

Wythenshawe FM

(Note 2 stations both in Manchester)

Ardwick, Longsight Levenshulme in Manchester

Wythenshawe, Manchester

Northern Visions Radio

Belfast, Northern Ireland

Glyn Taff Tenants' and Residents' Association [GTFM] and The University of Glamorgan [FUSION],

Pontypridd, Wales

Forest of Dean Community Radio

Mitcheldean, Gloucestershire

Sound Vision Trust [SVT].

Hackney, London

Table 2. Community-of-interest pilot access radio projects. Source [15]

Project name

Place

Community of Interest

Radio Awaz

Glasgow

This project serves the Asian population in central Glasgow, broadcasting in Urdu, Punjabi and English.

New Style Radio

Birmingham

This service reflects the cultural needs, values and aspirations of the Afro-Caribbean and broader community in Central Birmingham.

Desi Radio 1602

Southall, London

A radio service for the Punjabi community from The Punjabi Centre, embracing the Punjabi culture, language and the celebration of religious festivals.

Cross Rhythms City Radio

Stoke-on-Trent

Christian radio for Stoke-on-Trent

Angel Community Radio

Havant, Hampshire

'Providing entertainment, stimulation and information of specific relevance to persons aged 60 and above'.

Faza

Nottingham

A partnership and frequency-sharing venture between the Asian Women's Project Ltd. and the Karimia Institute in Nottingham

Take-over-for-children

Leicester

A children's radio station incorporating contributions from 8-14 year olds. It is owned and operated by the registered charity, Take-over Radio Children's Media Trust.

Shine FM

Banbridge, Co. Down, N. Ireland

A Christian-based community service and training project run by an inter-denominational Christian charity.

Resonance FM

South Bank and Bankside, SE London

This is an art radio station run by the London Musicians' Collective. The content and style is 'radical and wide-ranging and includes the realisation of new artwork'.

What does the UK Government hope to achieve with access radio? What are its policy aims? The access radio pilot projects are not a Government initiative; they were recommended in June 2000 in the submission 'Radio regulation for the 21st Century' to the Department of Media, Culture and Sport. For the Government, Tessa Jowell, Secretary of State for Media, Culture and Sport has said that access radio could play a part in tackling 'social exclusion' [16]. The Government’s draft Communications Bill 2002 is accompanied by a paper call "The draft Communications Bill - the policy" which in paragraph 8.4.2.1 highlights a number of benefits which "could arise from access radio stations:

"- very local community based radio can help to increase active community
involvement, and local education and social inclusion projects"

"- small radio stations can provide a nursery for the next generation of
broadcasters - providing hands-on training and experience"

"- such stations can also satisfy the demand for access to broadcasting
resources from specific communities, whether based in locality, ethnic or
cultural background or other common interests" [17]

Andrew Newman and Fiona Mc Lean provide a review of social exclusion [18]. They note that increasingly the term has come to represent the process of social disintegration rather than just poverty itself. It was recognised in the European Union when the European Observatory on Polices to Combat Social Exclusion was established in 1989. Together with the European Community Programme they developed a definition of social exclusion which includes the failure of one or more of the following four systems:

The importance of social exclusion in policy terms was affirmed when the newly elected Labour Government established the Social Exclusion Unit in August 1997. It is part of the cabinet office - the Prime Ministers office.

If the aim of community radio or access radio is in assisting in civic, social, economic and interpersonal integration then these are the measures by which we would measure the effectiveness of community radio.

Evaluation of access radio

The fifteen pilot Access Radio stations are being assessed. Professor Anthony Everitt, was appointed as Evaluator in November 2001 [19]. The Evaluator had no part in selecting the access radio stations and he says it was his initiative to ask the Radio Authority to undertake the evaluation [20] i.e. he volunteered. The Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation is financing the evaluation work.

The Evaluator met with the Radio Authority's access radio steering group in December 2001 to agree the objectives and proposed work programme. The Community Media Association was also consulted. In January 2002 two planning workshops, in London and Manchester, were held with representatives of the pilot access radio projects [21]. The representatives were given a Planning Template Questionnaire. The Questionnaire provides instructions on what could be measured and how to go about it, including the collection of base line data. In a sense the Questionnaire was being used to design the evaluation for each radio project; there are broad categories for the measurements and not specific items. By March 2002 the Evaluator had visited all the pilot projects and agreed with them the form of their Evaluations. The pilot projects collect their own data, including baseline data and then report. The pilot projects are therefore undertaking self assessment. The Evaluator says that there is no auditing of the data collected by the self-assessments. He describes the evaluations, in this respect as 'flawed' [22]. The final report from the Evaluator is expected in February 2002.

The specific social gain, or public benefit, that the evaluation may be measuring is [13]:

The presence of 'linguist impact' in the evaluation may be partly attributed to the source of the project funding, which comes from the 'Spoken Word' arts programme of the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation.

The access radio evaluations are arguably limited in scope. For example there's no measure of increasing community, greater social, political or economic relations in the communities being served. It would be fair to say that the evaluations measure what is possible for a frugally funded project. As Professor Everitt says 'I don't have a university research department'. He also points out that his evaluation is just a beginning and that more could be achieved in the future when access radio becomes established. His evaluation is, in a sense, only the first stage of possible on-going research.

The evaluations are primarily collecting quantitative information. There is no ethnographic research that could have revealed qualitative information. David Machin describes ethnographic research by M.Fishman into news gathering in New York [25]. Ethnographic research is characterised by observer participation. It is only one of six forms of qualitative research [26] but could have enriched the evaluations, especially if a comparison were made with other forms of local radio.

Perhaps surprisingly there are no listener surveys for the access radio projects. Professor Everitt says that the cost of a listener survey is about £5,000 each. He says there would need to be a before and after survey for each of the fifteen projects. The cost of this, at about £150,000 was beyond the project, although he'd have liked to undertaken listener surveys. He points to the principle aim of access radio - social gain.

There have been community radio stations that measured their audience. One of the access radio projects, Angel Radio, which also broadcasts on cable [27] has undertaken listener surveys. The station manager, Anthony Smith says that the cable company carrying Angel radio hasn't provided them with listener figures. During the Access radio project, in the first month, appeals were made on-air for listeners to telephone Angel Radio at a specific time to answer a questionnaire. The telephone survey, which seems to have about 30 respondents, looked at their listening habits and preferences prior and during to the launch of the access project. The low number of survey subjects and its self-selecting nature means it unlikely to be representative survey of Angel radio's own listeners. Similar surveys have been undertaken for Angel Radio's RSLs which preceded the access radio project. It must be borne in mind that most access radio projects may be cash-poor and surveys may not be a priority.

Another of the access radio organisations - Radio Regen - has undertaken street surveys for its previous RSLs. The survey was undertaken by a volunteer using a standard industry listener questionnaire. The survey involved randomly stopping people in the broadcast area and interviewing them. The survey assessed which radio stations the respondents could recall listening-to and for how long. The age and socio-economic group of the respondent was also assessed. The results of the surveys are not known; but are they useful anyway? Director of Radio Regen, Phil Korbel says ‘the thing is that listener figures are the least of our measures - we do it by numbers of volunteers, numbers of community groups helped, training hours delivered and statutory agencies assisted... not your standard measure really...’ [28]

Audience research is not unheard-of in community radio. A study of the Cardiff Broadcasting Company (CBC) which was a '50/50 split between community and commercial interests' says that its listener research was conducted by the Joint Industry Committee for Radio Audience Research (JICRAR) [29]. Radio CBC broadcast from 1980 to 1985.

Community

Community radio takes as its raison d'être that its audience is a community. This contrasts with an audience for other forms of radio that may not form a community. What then is a community?

A paper on the subject of 'Community concepts and applications' published in 1972 quotes a 1955 study by Hillery reporting 94 different definitions of 'community' [30]. The Dictionary of Human Geography notes. 'What community means has been disputed for even longer than the place [Bell and Newby,1978]'' [31]. The Dictionary goes on to give a definition of community as 'a social network of interacting individuals, usually concentrated into a defined territory'. We expect these networks to be outside the home or family, in the public sphere [32].

Our expectation therefore is that if the members of an audience form a community then they will form a social network of interacting individuals. We could say that where social network occupies a territory there is a 'community-of-place' and/or where territory occupation is less important then they are a 'community-of-interest'.

If we wished to measure the effectiveness of community radio in sustaining community, or even building community then we could measure a community according to its structure, products or processes. We would seek to quantify these 'goods' before and after the community radio station broadcasts. Ideally we would wish to repeat these measurements to ensure that there truly exists a correlation between commissioning of the radio broadcasts and the increased community and not other factors.

Community change: structure

Our principal interest would be if the community increased in size. Measuring the membership of a community could follow several approaches. For the purpose of the study we would assume the reception area for the radio broadcast was the study area.

Within a geographic area, we could ask people if they identified with a community; if they felt part of a community or they had a sense of belonging. Our interest would be the change in their response, so we would want to survey the same set of people before and after the broadcasts started. If there were a greater identity with a community then community radio would be effective. We would want to discount the sense of belonging that may come from a longer residence alone.

We could measure the social network directly by measuring people's individual social interactions [33] [34]. We would want to study the number of social interactions with different people i.e. new interactions. We may need to categorise these interactions and abstract those that are 'community interactions'. Our interest, once again, would be a change in the number of 'community' transactions. If there were more 'community interactions' then community radio would be effective.

We could also aim to analyse the shape of the social network and note the changes. We could postulate that a particular network shape was more conducive to community. If the community shape were to emerged or be re-enforced after the broadcasting then community radio would be effective.

Community change: products

Economic

We could study economic relations. We could study economic interactions in a similar manner to the interactions of the social network. Increasing economic interactions would be seen as a good. The actual value of the economic relations would not be as useful as the number of economic interactions or transactions.

We could measure not only economic relations in terms of currency; there may be barter or other forms of economic transactions. It may be that there is a Local Exchange Trading Scheme (LETS) - a local currency system, or there may be a 'Time Bank' scheme in operation. Indeed we may actually want to establish a local currency as a direct way of measuring interactions before and after radio broadcasting.

Civil society

Recently the concept of social capital has gained ground. Social capital, says Siobhan Riodan, consists of norms of trust and reciprocity which arise from the functioning of social networks [35]. This allows people to act for mutual benefit. It allows for civic engagement in activities as diverse as exchanging childcare with neighbours to neighbourhood watch schemes. Riodan notes that there are a number of studies about measuring social capital [36] [37].

One method of measuring social capital is used by Robert Putnam [38]. He has tried to measure social capital by counting groups in civil society, using censuses and surveys to find the membership of sports clubs, bowling leagues, literary societies, political clubs, etc. Both the size of the groups and the number of groups are measures of civil society. Could we not use Putnam's measure of civil society in accessing the success of communities? If there is more after the community radio commissioning then it is effective.

Community change: function

If we were to measure the frequency of the individual social interactions within the network then we could determine the functioning of the community. This is similar to the structural analysis suggested earlier but the measure now is not the size or shape of the social network but its capacity. For example how frequently do you speak with your neighbours rather than with how many neighbours do you talk.

Community profiling

Community profiles or social audits are one way of measuring communities and are well-documented [39]. They are oriented to communities-or-place.

Could community profiles be used to measure the effectiveness of community radio? Sophia Christakopoulou and Jon Dawson have developed a 'community well-being instrument' [40]. It profiles six dimensions that examine the urban neighbourhood as:

But are we expecting too much of a community radio station in expecting it to have a discernible influence on issues such as health, employment and crime? Radio Regen in Manchester is a development charity that uses radio as a tool in urban regeneration and has run several short term RSLs. However it also employs community workers and it is one of a number of agencies working on regeneration projects.

Community and communication

It has been assumed that communities communicate and that communication can deliver community, but is this really the case?

Eric Rothenbuhler reviews the theoretical and empirical research on communities and communications. He concludes in summary that:

'The empirical literature indicates that people vary in the nature and degree of their community ties: involvement, identification, affection, and so on. Studies consistently show that communication behaviours are positively associated with these ties of community. Apparently, if we wanted to increase the prevalence and strength of community ties, we would induce greater participation in community-oriented communication. Studies also indicate some prevalence of quasi-economic thinking about the places people live ... hence, there would be a danger that efforts to increase community involvement would be received as undue demands, decreasing the attractiveness of community' [41]

In other words, communication encourages community, but you can have too much of a good thing.

How does radio compare then with other community media? Often community development projects, along with their community meetings, etc will have a community newsletter delivered to local residents. Should community radio, cost considerations aside, be the preferred media?

A 1995 study by Stamm, Emig and Hesse of the contribution of local media to community involvement/integration suggests that the extent of the contribution may previously have been over estimated [42]. The study also suggests that some media contribute more than others. The study involved a telephone survey of 432 people in a medium sized community (200,000 people) in a south-eastern city of the United States. The survey asked people what kind of involvement they had in the community and how settled they were in their community. Interestingly, it categorised the community involvement as either 'attending to community', 'ideas for improving', 'working for change', 'getting people together'. The use of local media and interpersonal communication was also surveyed.

A statistical analysis found that newspaper use and television use, but not radio use, added to the prediction of community involvement. However talking with others was the only significant predictor. The strongest correlation of media use and community involvement was found, not surprisingly when people where settling-in to a new community. The research concluded that 'Thus, these findings are consistent with the notion that interpersonal communication, not mass local media, is the primary mechanism for community integration of the individual'. Would similar results for radio been obtained if it was community radio rather than just radio? How local was the radio?

Conclusion

Measuring the effectiveness of community radio depends on having a clear statement of the projects aim. For some community media organisations community radio's aim may be putting the control of media into communities and away from other controlling interests. While for Government and the Radio Authority the emphasis is on social gain and combating social exclusion.

The expectation of social gain by the access radio projects is modest and it stems from direct involvement with the radio station itself. Did the modest resources allocated to the projects' evaluation drive this expectation? It appears to be so.

The wider social gains in the community of community radio are not being adequately assessed in the pilot access radio projects. However research also suggests that expectations of increasing community involvement due to radio may be ill founded.

Recommendation

Further research, similar to that undertaken by Stamm, Emig and Hesse, should be undertaken to assess the contribution of community radio to community involvement.

 

 

References

[1] Mark Hattam website, http://www.dxradio.co.uk/accessradio.html [Last Updated on 19/08/2002], 31 August 2002

[2] Radio Authority, RSL Annual Report 2001, 2001, p.4 says '2.02 Short-term Restricted Service Licences [RSLs] are usually licensed for a maximum period of twenty-eight days, for limited coverage area [a town or part of a city] and for a broad range of reasons. Long-term RSLs [LRSLs] are issued for radio stations wishing to provide a service within the boundaries of a single site occupied by a non-commercial establishment such as a hospital or university, for a maximum of five years'.

[3] Radio Authority, RSL Annual Report 2001, 2001, p.7

[4] Hospital Broadcasting Association website, www.hbauk.co.uk, 26 August 2002

[5] Radio Authority, Pocket Book, June 2002, pp. 93 - 94.

[6] Radio Authority, Pocket Book, June 1999, p.73

[7] Radio Authority, RSL Annual Report 2001, 2001, p.7

[8] Community Media Association, telephone conversation with author - Andrew Wood, 2 August 2002

[9] Hospital Broadcasting Association website, www.hbauk.co.uk, 26 August 2002

[10] Student Radio Association website, www.studentradio.org.uk, 26 August 2002

[11] D. Henry, Radio in the Global Age, Polity, 2000, pp.14-16.

[12] S. Partridge, NOT the BBC/IBA, Comedia Publishing Group, 1982, pp.10-16.

[13] P.Lewis & J.Booth, The Invisible Medium: Radio, Macmillian, 1989, p.106 says 'In 1979, COMCOM published its Community Broadcasting Charter, adapted from the American NFCB's (National Federation of Community Broadcasters) station membership rules. This charter has since been modified by the Community Radio Association'. The Community Radio Association has now become Commedia - The Community Media Association.

[14] Radio Authority, Letter of Intent [May 2001], Radio Authority Web site [www.radioauthority.org.uk], 26 August 2002

[15] Mark Hattam website, http://www.dxradio.co.uk/accessradio.html [Last Updated on 19/08/2002], 31 August 2002

[16] Tessa Jowell, letter to Andrew Smith M.P – parliamentary representative of author – Andrew Wood, July 2002

[17] Steve Buckley – Community Media Association, email to author - Andrew Wood, 2 September 2002

[18] A.Newman & F.McLean, Heritage Builds Communities: the application of heritage resources to problems of social exclusion, International Journal of Heritage Studies, 4 [3&4], Autumn 1998, pp.143-153

[19] Radio Authority, News Release 166/01, 21 November 2001

[20] A. Everitt, Interview by author - Andrew Wood (audio recording), 19 August 2002

[21] A. Everitt, Access Radio Research Project - Paper for the Access Radio Evaluation Workshops Wednesday 9 January and Monday 14 January, January 2002

[22] A. Everitt, Interview by author - Andrew Wood (audio recording), 19 August 2002

[23] A. Everitt, Access Radio Evaluation Workshops - Planning Template Questionnaire, 6 March 2002

[24] A. Everitt, Interview by author - Andrew Wood (audio recording), 19 August 2002

[25] D. Machin, Ethnographic research for media studies, Arnold, 2002, pp 103 - 107

[26] M.Hammersley & P.Atkinson, Ethnography, Routledge, 1995, p.1

[27] Radio Authority, Pocket Book, June 2002, pp. 93 - 94.

[28] P.Korbel - Director of Radio Regen, email to author - Andrew Wood, 30 August 2002

[29] P.M.Lewis and J.Booth, 'The Invisible Medium: Radio', Macmillian, 1989, pp.108-114

[30] M.J.Hill, Community concepts and applications, New Community, Vol. 1 No. 2, 1972.

[31] R.J,Johnston & D.Gregory (Editors), Dictionary of Human Geography, 2000, Blackwells, p.101

[32] G.Crow & G.Allan, Community life - An introduction to local social relations, Harvester/ Wheatsheaf, 1994, Chapter 1

[33] G.Crow & G.Allan, Community life - An introduction to local social relations, Harvester/ Wheatsheaf, 1994, Chapter 9

[34] A.Degenne & M.Forse, Introducing social networks, Sage publications, 1999

[35] S.Riordon, Social Capital, Paper, Siobhan Riordan - Management and Training Consultant [tel: 01884 841 491], 2002

[36] W. Stone, Measuring Social Capital - towards a theoretically informed measurement for researching social capital in family and community life, Australian Institute of Family Studies, Research Paper No.24, February 2001

[37] P.Bullen & J.Onyx, Measuring social capital in five communities in NSW: An analysis, Centre for Australian Community Organisations and Management [CACOM], University of Technology, Sydney, Australia, 1998

[38] F.Fukuyama, Social capital, civil society and development, Third World Quaterly, February 2001 Vol. 22, No.1, p.12

[39] M.Hawtin & G.Hughes & J.Percy-Smith, Community Profiling - auditing social needs, Open University Press, 1994

[40] S.Christakopoulou & J.Dawson, Community well-being profiles, Town and Country Planning, June 1998, pp.182-183

[41] G.Sheperd & E.Rothenbulher, Communication and communities, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, 2001, pp.164-165

[42] K.Stamm & A.Emig & M.Hesse, The contribution of local media to community involvement, Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, Vol. 74 No.1 1997, pp. 97-107

 

 

 

 

Bibliography

 

Radio Authority, Pocket Book, Radio Authority, June 2002.

Radio Authority, Pocket Book, Radio Authority, June 1999.

Radio Authority, RSL Annual Report 2001, Radio Authority, 2001.

G.Crow & G.Allan, Community life - An introduction to local social relations, Harvester/ Wheatsheaf, 1994.

A.Degenne & M.Forse, Introducing social networks, Sage publications, 1999

M.Hammersley & P.Atkinson, Ethnography, Routledge, 1995

D. Henry, Radio in the Global Age, Polity, 2000.

M.Hawtin & G.Hughes & J.Percy-Smith, Community profiling - auditing social needs, Open University Press, 1994

R.Johnston & D.Gregory (Editors), Dictionary of Human Geography, 2000, Blackwells.

P.Lewis & J.Booth, The Invisible Medium: Radio, Macmillian, 1989.

D. Machin, Ethnographic research for media studies, Arnold, 2002

S. Partridge, NOT the BBC/IBA, Comedia Publishing Group, 1982.

G.Sheperd & E.Rothenbulher, Communication and communities, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, 2001.

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